The study of the functioning of firearms-firing,
the flight of the bullet, and the effects of different types of ammunition.
was ballistics first used in crime investigation?
Ballistics in crime investigation was
first formally established in 1923. Charles Waite and Philip Garavell
set up the Bureau of Forensic Ballistics (BFB).
were important developments in ballistics?
The most important development in ballistics
was the comparison microscope. It contained an optical bridge which
allowed two objects to be compared.
are the most important principles in gathering ballistic evidence?
|Bullets can be traced from a spent cartridge.
The design of the firearm enables this.
|When gun is fired, the bullet travels down
barrel, through striations: a series of parallel lines of varying
width, depth, and separation. Scratch marks on the surface of
|Striations are unique to each gun.
|The police can measure the trajectory of
the bullet to determine what happened at a crime scene.
|Ballistic science can be used to determine
whether or not a person was present when a gun crime was committed
through the tiny specks of primer residue and gunpowder which
remains on the hands of the person whom fired it.
||Henry Goddard, Scotland
||First used bullet comparison
to catch a murderer based on a visible flaw in the bullet which could
be traced back to the mold.
||Dr. Alexandre Lacassagne,
Professor of forensic medicine at the University of Lyons, France
||First to try to individualize
bullets to a gun barrel. His comparisons at the time were based simply
on the number of lands and grooves
||Paul Jesrich, forensic
||Took photomicrographs of
two bullets to compare, and subsequently individualize them through
the minute differences.
||Dr. Victor Balthazard,
Professor of forensic medicine at the Sorbonne
||Published the first article
individualizing bullet markings.
||The first case when bullet
comparision was used was in the Sacco
and Vanzetti trial in Bridgewater, Mass.
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